Irak-kríggið

Frá Wikipedia, hin frælsa alfrøðin
Far til: navigatión, leita
Irak-kríggið
Iraq War montage.png
Ovast, við klokkuni: Amerikanskar herdeildir á goymistaðnum hjá Uday Hussein og Qusay Hussein; uppreistrarfólk í Norðurirak; ein irakiskur uppreistrarmaður skjýtur MANPADS; niðurtøkan av Saddam Hussein standmyndini á Firdos Plássinum.
Dato 20 mars 2003 (2003-03-20) – 18 desember 2011 (2011-12-18)
(8 ár, 8 mánaðir and 28 dagar)
Staður Irak
Úrslit
Stríðandi partar

Innrás-fasan (2003)
 USA
 Stóra Bretland
 Avstralia
 Pólland

stuðul frá:
Peshmerga

Invasion phase (2003)

Ba'athist Iraq

Eftir-innrásina
(2003–11)

 United States (2003–11)
 United Kingdom (2003–11)
New Iraqi government

 Iraqi Kurdistan

Post-invasion (2003–11)
Iraqi Regional Branch


Sunni insurgents


Shia insurgents

supported by:
Iran Iran


For fighting between insurgent groups, see Sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–07).
Kommandantar og leiðarar
Ayad Allawi
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Nouri al-Maliki
Ricardo Sanchez
George W. Casey, Jr.
David Petraeus
Raymond T. Odierno
Lloyd Austin
George W. Bush
Tommy Franks
Tony Blair
Gordon Brown
David Cameron

Anders Fogh Rasmussen

Ba'ath Party
Saddam Hussein (POW) Skull and crossbones.svg
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri


Sunni insurgency
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 
Abu Ayyub al-Masri 
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi 
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
25px Ishmael Jubouri
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi'i (POW)


Shia insurgency
Muqtada al-Sadr
Shiism arabic blue.svg Abu Deraa
23x15px Qais al-Khazali
23x15px Akram al-Kabi

Styrki

Invasion forces (2003–04)
309,000
 United States: 192,000[13]
 United Kingdom: 45,000
 Australia: 2,000
 Poland: 194
Irakiskt Kurdistan Peshmerga: 70,000


Coalition forces (2004–09)
176,000 at peak
United States Forces – Iraq (2010–11)
112,000 at activation
Security contractors 6,000–7,000 (estimate)[14]
Iraqi security forces
805,269 (military and paramilitary: 578,269,[15] police: 227,000)
Awakening militias
≈103,000 (2008)[16]


Iraqi Kurdistan
≈400,000 (Kurdish Border Guard: 30,000,[17] Peshmerga 375,000)

Coat of arms of Iraq (1991-2004).svg Iraqi Armed Forces: 375,000 (disbanded in 2003)
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svg Special Iraqi Republican Guard: 12,000
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svg Iraqi Republican Guard: 70,000–75,000
Fedayeen Saddam SSI.svg Fedayeen Saddam: 30,000


Sunni Insurgents
≈70,000 (2007)[18]
al-Qaeda
≈1,300 (2006)[19]

Islamic State of Iraq
≈1,000 (2008)
Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order
≈500–1,000 (2007)
Mansskaði og tap

Iraqi Security Forces (post-Saddam)
Killed: 17,690[20]
Wounded: 40,000+[21]

Coalition forces
Killed: 4,809[22][23] (4,491 U.S.,[24] 179 UK,[25] 139 other)
Missing/captured (U.S.): 17 (8 rescued, 9 died in captivity)[26]
Wounded: 32,753+ (32,226 U.S.,[27] 315 UK, 212+ other[28])[29][30][31][32] Injured/diseases/other medical*: 51,139 (47,541 U.S.,[33] 3,598 UK)[29][31][32]

Contractors
Killed: 1,554[34][35]
Wounded & injured: 43,880[34][35]

Awakening Councils
Killed: 1,002+[36]
Wounded: 500+ (2007),[37] 828 (2008)[38]

Total dead: 25,286
Total wounded: 117,961

Iraqi combatant dead (invasion period): 7,600–10,800[39][40] Insurgents (post-Saddam)
Killed: 26,544 (2003–11)[41]
Detainees: 12,000 (Iraqi-held)[42]

Total dead: 34,144–37,344

Estimated violent deaths:
Lancet survey (March 2003 – July 2006): 601,027 (95% CI: 426,369–793,663)[43][44]
Iraq Family Health Survey (March 2003 – July 2006): 151,000 (95% CI: 104,000–223,000)[45]

Documented deaths from violence:
Iraq Body Count (2003 – 14 December 2011): 103,160–113,728 civilian deaths recorded,[46] and 12,438 new deaths added from the Iraq War Logs[47]
Associated Press (March 2003 – April 2009): 110,600[48]

For more information see: Casualties of the Iraq War
* "injured, diseased, or other medical": required medical air transport. UK number includes "aeromed evacuations"
** Total deaths include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.
Fyrimynd:Campaignbox Iraq War

Irak-kríggið var ein langdrigin bardagi, ið USA stóð á odda fyri, og vardi frá 20. mars 2003 til 18. des. 2011. Bardagin byrjaði við at ein samgonga av nógvum londum við USA á odda stóðu saman um at gera innrás í Irak í mars 2003. Tað eydnaðist teimum sameindu herdeildunum at koppa stjórnini hjá Saddam Hussein og Baath-flokkinum. Saddam Hussein hevði tá verið forseti í Irak síðan 1979. Kríggið vardi tó í meira enn 10 ár, av tí at uppreistrardeildir í Irak bardust ímóti teimum sameindu herdeildunum og móti tí nýggju stjórnini. Umleið 151.000 to 600.000 irakar ella fleiri lótu lív undir innrásini og tey næstu 3-4 árini. USA tók seg alment út úr Irak í 2011, og tá endaði kríggið. Men síðan hevur borgarakríggj valda í Irak og í 2014 gjørdist USA aftur partur av stríði í landinum í 2014 og var tá á odda fyri einari nýggjari samgongu í einum kríggi, ið enn gongur fyri seg.

Í 2005 varð nýggj grundlóg samtykt í Irak, soleiðis, at landið fekk fólkaræðisliga stýrisskipan. Meðan Hussein hevði valdið varð landið skipað sum fullkomiligt einaræði, og meðan hann stýrdi, mátti irakiska fólkið, serliga kurdarnir, tola nógv. Stjórnin fekk stuðul frá herinum og trygdarløgregluni, sum bardu niður alla politiska mótstøðu í landinum.

Innrásin í Irak byrjaði eftir at Saddam Hussein hevði fingið eitt ultimatum um at fara úr landinum. Innrásin byrjaði við einum "shock and awe" bumbuálopi. Irakiskar herdeildir vóru skjótt yvirmannaðar og herdeildir hjá USA fóru inn í landið. Ba'atist stjórnin varð feld og Saddam Hussein varð fangaður í desember 2003 og avrættaður trý ár seinni av einum hernaðardómstóli. Tómrúmið ið uppstóð eftir Saddam Hussein og vánalig leiðsla av tí bráðfeingis stjórnini ið varð sett av teimum sameindu herdeildini, førdi til harðskap, ið av summum journalistum verður nevnt borgarakríggj, í Irak í 2006-07, har harðskapur varð framdur av Sunni og Shi'a trúarbólkum. Harumframt varð eisini uppreistur ímóti USA og teimum sameindu herdeildunum ið vóru í landinum. Harðskapurin førdi til, at USA økti munandi um herdeildir sínar fyri at veita trygd til Baghdad og Al Anbar landlutin. Á vetri 2007-08 byrjaði USA at taka herdeildir sínar úr Irak, og eftir at Barack Obama gjørdist forseti í USA kom ferð á afturtøkuna av amerikonskum herdeildum úr Irak, til teir at enda heilt fóru úr landinum í 2011.

Sí eisini[rætta | rætta wikitekst]

Keldur[rætta | rætta wikitekst]

  1. President Barack Obama Speaks With VICE News. YouTube. 16 March 2015. 
  2. "Operations By Iran's Military Mastermind - Business Insider". Business Insider. 9 July 2014. http://uk.businessinsider.com/operations-by-irans-military-mastermind-2014-7?r=US&IR=T. 
  3. "Sectarian divisions change Baghdad's image". MSNBC. 3 July 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13684759/. Heintað 18 February 2007. 
  4. "U.S. says Iraq pullout won't cause dramatic violence". MSNBC. 18 November 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40257752. Heintað 26 November 2010. [deyð leinkja]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Ctc.usma.edu. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-jrtn-movement-and-iraq%E2%80%99s-next-insurgency. Heintað 2014-08-02. 
  6. "UK 'to continue deporting failed Iraqi asylum seekers'". BBC News. 22 November 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-11816974. Heintað 26 November 2010. 
  7. Galbraith, Peter W. (2007). The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743294249. [page needed]
  8. "Iran expands regional 'empire' ahead of nuclear deal". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/23/us-mideast-iran-region-insight-idUSKBN0MJ1G520150323. 
  9. "Chaos in Iraq under US-Iran hegemony - Iraq - Worldbulletin News". World Bulletin. http://www.worldbulletin.net/nouri-al-maliki/141393/chaos-in-iraq-under-us-iran-hegemony. 
  10. "How to Stop Iran's Growing Hegemony - National Review Online". National Review Online. http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/416770/how-stop-irans-growing-hegemony-mario-loyola. 
  11. "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S Department of State. 5 February 2014. http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rm/221274.htm. Heintað 26 November 2010. 
  12. "Operations By Iran's Military Mastermind - Business Insider". Business Insider. 9 July 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/operations-by-irans-military-mastermind-2014-7. 
  13. "A Timeline of Iraq War, Troop Levels". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/07/a-timeline-of-iraq-war-tr_n_95534.html. 
  14. "Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Programs Charlene Lamb's Remarks on Private Contractors in Iraq". U.S. Department of State. 17 July 2009. http://www.state.gov/m/ds/rls/rm/143420.htm. Heintað 23 October 2010. 
  15. International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (3 February 2010). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5. [page needed]
  16. Rubin, Alissa J.; Nordland, Rod (29 March 2009). "Troops Arrest an Awakening Council Leader in Iraq, Setting Off Fighting". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/world/middleeast/29iraq.html?hpw. Heintað 30 March 2010. 
  17. "The Kurdish peshmerga forces will not be integrated into the Iraqi army: Mahmoud Sangawi — Interview". Ekurd.net. 22 January 2010. http://www.ekurd.net/mismas/articles/misc2010/1/independentstate3441.htm. Heintað 23 October 2010. 
  18. The Brookings Institution Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq 1 October 2007
  19. Pincus, Walter. "Violence in Iraq Called Increasingly Complex". The Washington Post, 17 November 2006.
  20. 260 killed in 2003,[1] 15,196 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009),[2] 67 killed in March 2009,[3] 1,100 killed in 2010,[4] and 1,067 killed in 2011,[5] thus giving a total of 17,690 dead
  21. "Iraq War". U.S. Department of State. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/77707.pdf. Heintað 18 November 2012. 
  22. "Operation Iraqi Freedom". iCasualties. http://icasualties.org/Iraq/index.aspx. Heintað 24 August 2010. 
  23. "Home and Away: Iraq and Afghanistan War Casualties". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/forces/casualties/index.html. Heintað 30 March 2010. 
  24. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf
  25. "Fact Sheets | Operations Factsheets | Operations in Iraq: British Fatalities". Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/OperationsFactsheets/OperationsInIraqBritishFatalities.htm. Heintað 17 October 2009. [deyð leinkja]
  26. "POW and MIA in Iraq and Afghanistan Fast Facts". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/pow-and-mia-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-fast-facts. Heintað 5 June 2014. ; As of July 2012, seven American private contractors remain unaccounted for. Their names are: Jeffrey Ake, Aban Elias, Abbas Kareem Naama, Neenus Khoshaba, Bob Hamze, Dean Sadek and Hussain al-Zurufi. Healy, Jack, "With Withdrawal Looming, Trails Grow Cold For Americans Missing In Iraq", The New York Times, 22 May 2011, p. 6.
  27. "Casualty". U.S. Department of Defense. http://www.defense.gov/NEWS/casualty.pdf. Heintað 18 November 2012. 
  28. 33 Ukrainians [6], 31+ Italians [7] [8], 30 Bulgarians [9] [10], 20 Salvadorans [11], 19 Georgians [12], 18 Estonians [13], 16+ Poles [14] [15] [16][deyð leinkja] [17] [18], 15 Spaniards [19] [20] [21] [22], 10 Romanians [23], 6 Australians [24][deyð leinkja], 5 Albanians, 4 Kazakhs [25], 3 Filipinos [26] and 2 Thais [27] [28] for a total of 212+
  29. 29.0 29.1 Many official U.S. tables at "Military Casualty Information". See latest totals for injury, disease/other medical
  30. "Casualties in Iraq".
  31. 31.0 31.1 iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties"
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Defence Internet Fact Sheets Operations in Iraq: British Casualties"[deyð leinkja]. UK Ministry of Defense. Latest combined casualty and fatality tables[deyð leinkja].
  33. http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-total.pdf
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation". U.S. Department of Labor. http://www.dol.gov/owcp/dlhwc/dbaallnation.htm. Heintað 15 December 2011. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 T. Christian Miller (23 September 2009). "U.S. Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries". Projects.propublica.org. http://projects.propublica.org/tables/contractor_casualties. Heintað 23 October 2010. 
  36. 185 in Diyala from June 2007 to December 2007,[29] 4 in assassination of Abu Risha, 25 on 12 November 2007,[30] 528 in 2008,[31] 27 on 2 January 2009,[32] 53 From 6 to 12 April 2009,[33] 13 on 16 November 2009,[34][deyð leinkja] 15 in December 2009,[35] 100+ from April to June 2010,[36] [37] 52 on 18 July 2010,[38] [39][deyð leinkja] total of 1,002+ dead
  37. Moore, Solomon; Oppel, Richard A. (24 January 2008). "Attacks Imperil U.S.-Backed Militias in Iraq". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/24/world/middleeast/24sunni.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print. 
  38. Greg Bruno. "Finding a Place for the 'Sons of Iraq'". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/finding-place-sons-iraq/p16088. Heintað 26 December 2011. 
  39. Press release (28 October 2003). "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-Combatants; Death Toll Hurts Postwar Stability Efforts, Damages US Image Abroad"[deyð leinkja]. Project on Defense Alternatives (via Common Dreams NewsCenter). Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  40. Conetta, Carl (23 October 2003). "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict — Project on Defense Alternative Research Monograph #8". Project on Defense Alternatives (via Commonwealth Institute). Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  41. 597 killed in 2003,[40], 23,984 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009),[41] 652 killed in May 2004,[42] 45 killed in March 2009,[43] 676 killed in 2010,[44] and 590 killed in 2011,[45] thus giving a total of 26,544 dead
  42. "Amnesty: Iraq holds up to 30,000 detainees without trial". CNN. 13 September 2010. http://articles.cnn.com/2010-09-13/world/iraq.detainees_1_detainees-iraqi-authorities-moussawi?_s=PM:WORLD. Heintað 6 January 2011. 
  43. "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey" PDF (242 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, 11 October 2006
  44. "The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002–2006" PDF (603 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts. A supplement to the October 2006 Lancet study. It is also found here: [46] [47]
  45. "Iraq Family Health Survey" New England Journal of Medicine 31 January 2008
  46. "Iraq Body Count". http://www.iraqbodycount.org/. Heintað 27 April 2014. 
  47. "Iraq War Logs: What the numbers reveal". Iraq Body Count. http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/warlogs/. Heintað 3 December 2010. 
  48. Kim Gamel (23 April 2009). "AP Impact: Secret tally has 87,215 Iraqis dead". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_wires/2009Apr23/0,4675,MLIraqDeathToll,00.html. Heintað 26 April 2014.