Tretivuárakríggið

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Tretivuárakríggið
The Hanging by Jacques Callot.jpg
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (Krígsins stóra vónloysi) eftir Jacques Callot, 1632
Dato 1618–1648
Staður Evropa (fyrst og fremst dagsins Týskland)
Úrslit Friðurin í Vestfalia
Stríðandi partar

Anti-Habsburg Statir og teirra sameindu:
 Svøríki (frá 1630)
Frakland Frakland (frá 1635)
Danmark Danmark-Nøríki (1625–1629)
Bohemia Bohemia (1618–1620)
 Sameind Niðurlond
Saxony Saxony
Electoral Palatinate (until 1623)
Brandenburg-Prussia
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
Ongland Ongland (1625–30)[1]
Skotland Skotland (1625–38)[2]
Transsylvania
Romanian and Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels[3]

Stuðlað av:
Osmanska Ríkið Osmanska ríkið
Russland[4]

Zaporizhian Sich

Habsburg Statir og teirra sameindu:
Habsburg Monarchy Heilaga rómverska ríkið

Spania Spania
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Ungarn[5]
 Kroatia[6]
Danmark Danmark-Nøríki (1643–1645)[7]

Stuðlað av:

Pólland
Kommandantar og leiðarar

 Svøríki Gustavus II Adolphus 
 Svøríki Axel Oxenstierna  Svøríki Johan Banér
 Svøríki Lennart Torstenson
 Svøríki Gustav Horn
 Svøríki Carl Gustaf Wrangel
 Svøríki Charles X Gustav
 Svøríki Kingdom of Scotland James Spens
 Svøríki Kingdom of Scotland Alexander Leslie
 Svøríki Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England James 3rd Marquis Hamilton
Kingdom of France Louis XIII of France
Kingdom of France Cardinal Richelieu
Kingdom of France Marquis de Feuquieres  
Kingdom of France Henri, Prince of Condé
Kingdom of France Duke of Gramont
Kingdom of France Gaspard III de Coligny
Kingdom of France Louis II de Bourbon
Kingdom of France Urbain de Maillé-Brézé
Kingdom of France Vicomte de Turenne
Kingdom of France Kingdom of Scotland John Hepburn
Bohemia Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Bohemia Jindrich Matyas Thurn
Bohemia Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg
Danmark Christian IV of Denmark
Danmark Kingdom of Scotland Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale
Electorate of Saxony Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Electorate of Saxony Johann Georg I of Saxony
Dutch Republic Maurice of Nassau
Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Dutch Republic William of Nassau
Dutch Republic Frederik Hendrik of Orange
Dutch Republic Maarten Tromp
Dutch Republic Ernst Casimir
Dutch Republic Hendrik Casimir I
Kingdom of England Kingdom of Scotland James VI and I
Kingdom of England Duke of Buckingham
Kingdom of England Sir Horace Vere
Gabriel Bethlen
Ernst von Mansfeld
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Christian of Brunswick

Ivan Sirko

Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Holy Roman Empire Spania Ottavio Piccolomini
Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy  
Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Holy Roman Empire Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim  
Holy Roman Empire Raimondo Montecuccoli
Holy Roman Empire Peter Melander Graf von Holzappel  
Holy Roman Empire Spania Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria
Spania Philip III of Spain Spania Philip IV of Spain
Spania Count-Duke of Olivares
Spania Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Spania Holy Roman Empire Charles de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy
Spania Ambrosio Spinola
Spania Carlos Coloma
Spania Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly  
Spania Duke of Feria
Spania Francisco de Melo
Spania Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Spania Holy Roman Empire Matthias Gallas

Maximilian I of Bavaria
Styrki

149 000 Swedish (1632)[9]
35 000 Danish & Norwegian (1625)[10]
77 000 Dutch (1629)[11]
Approx: 100–150 000 Germans[tørvar keldu]
150 000 French[tørvar keldu]
30–40 000 Bohemian Estates[tørvar keldu]
30 000 Hungarians (Anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels)[tørvar keldu]
6 000 Transylvanians
[12]

60 000 Ottoman cavalry(as support to Frederick V, Elector Palatine)

300 000 Spanish (includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Italy)[tørvar keldu]
100–200 000 Germans[tørvar keldu]

Approx: 20 000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry[13]
Mansskaði og tap
8 000 000 including civilian casualties[14]

Tretivuárakríggið var ein røð av bardøgum í Miðevropa tíðarskeiðið frá 1618 til 1648 og vardi í tretivu ár.[15] Talan var um ein av teimum bardøgum, ið hava vart longst, og ein av teimum mest deyðiligu bardøgunum í evropeiskari søgu.

Keldur[rætta | rætta wikitekst]

  1. At war with Spain 1625–30 (and France 1627–29). 6000 Englishmen also fought under Charles Morgan in the Danish campaigns. These were largely drawn from the famous English brigade of four regiments which were based in the Dutch Republic
  2. Scotland declared war and fought against Spain 1625–30 and France 1627–29, mostly conducting the war at sea. In addition to providing 2000 troops for the campaign against France in 1627, Scottish privateers harried French shipping and captured and occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Quebec. The Scottish Privy Council also provided warrants for 13,700 troops for Danish service who fought under Scottish flag with a Dannerbrog in the top left corner. These were led initially by the Catholic Robert Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale and more famously by Donald Mackay Lord Reay. In 1630, 8000 more Britons, mostly Scots led by James 3rd Marquis Hamilton landed in Germany under British flag. They wre explicitly called the "British army" and had been raised on warrants issued by the English and Scottish Privy councils for allied service alongside Sweden. They joined an estimated 12,000 Scots already in Swedish service commanded by General Sir James Spens, Alexander Leslie, Patrick Ruthven and John Hepburn. The latter man led a Scottish brigade in France from 1634-1636 after which it fell under the control of the Douglas family. Throughout the entire period of the war, the Scots maintained a brigade of three regiments in Dutch service. The 1625-1638 period represents the period of greatest engagement, though Scots were active as allies in the anti-Habsburg alliance throughout the whole course of the war
  3. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3
  4. Russland stuðlaði Svøríki móti Póllandi-Litava (Smolenska kríggið)
  5. Ervin Liptai: Military history of Hungary, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985. ISBN 9633263379
  6. Hussar (Huszár) hu.wikipedia
  7. Denmark fought Sweden and the Dutch Republic in the Torstenson War
  8. Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1903). The World's History: Western Europe to 1800. W. Heinemann. p. 573. ISBN 0-217-96566-0. 
  9. Swedish intervention
  10. Danish intervention
  11. page 54 http://www.pikeandshotsociety.org/documents/article4.pdf "When the dutch army was increased to 77 000 in 1629 during the threatened Spanish invasion..."
  12. Gabriel Bethlen's army numbered 5 000 Hungarian pikemen and 1 000 German mercenary, with the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels numbered together approx. 35 000 men. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  13. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  14. Davis, Norman (1996). Europe, a history. Oxford University Press. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-7126-6633-6. 
  15. "Thirty Years War". www.infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0848495.html. Heintað 24 May 2008. 
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