London Underground

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London Undirgrund
London Underground logo, known as the roundel, is made of a red circle with a horizontal blue bar.
A deep level train stops to the right of a platform as some people (left) wait to board it.
Eitt Central line tok djúpt niðri í undirgrundini á Lancaster Gate á veg til Ealing Broadway
A train is slowing to stop at a platform on the right. Although there is a roof, sunlight can be seen through gaps; another platform and track can be seen on left. People are standing or walking on both platforms.
Eitt størri tok frá Metropolitan line yvir jørðini, á Farringdon á veg til Aldgate
Yvirlit
Staður Greater London og home counties
Slag av flutningi Undirgrundsbani
Tal av leiðum 11[1]
Tal av støðum 270 veitir tænastu[1] (260 eigur)
Annual ridership 1,265 milliardir (2013/14)[2][3]
Heimasíða London Underground
Rakstur
Byrjaði rakstur 10 januar 1863; 154 ár síðan (1863-01-10)
Operator(s) London Underground Limited
Tøkni
Longd av skipan 402 km (250 mi)[1]
Sporbreidd 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Ravmagnan 630 V DC fourth rail
Miðalferð 33 km/h (21 mph)[2]

London Underground (eisini kent sum the Underground ella the Tube) er ein metroskipan, ið veitir tænastu til stórar partar av Stórlondon og partar av grannaøkjunum Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire og Essex. Skipanin veitir tænastu til 270 støðir og hevur 402 km spor, av hesum eru 45 prosent undir jørðini. Síðan 2003 hevur LUL verið eitt dóttirfelag, hvørs eigari er Transport for London (TfL), ið er tað lógarkravda felagið, ið hevur ábyrgdina av størstapartinum av ferðasambandinum í Stórlondon. Felagið verður rikið av einari leiðslu og einum kommiseri ið verður útpeikaður av borgarstjóranum í London. Í 2012 vóru 91 prosent av rakstrarútreiðslunum fevndar av ferðafólkainntøkum.[4]

Leiðir[rætta | rætta wikitekst]

Navn Kortlitur[5] Læt upp
fyrst ferð
Slag Longd No.
Sta
Núverandi nøgdir Framtíðar nøgdir Túrar
per ár
Miðal túrar
per míl
(×1000)
2011/12 tøl[6]
Bakerloo line Brúnur 1906 Deep
Tube
23.2 km
14.5 mi
25 1972 Stock New Tube for London 111,136 7,665
Central line Reyður 1900[a] Deep
Tube
74.0 km
46.0 mi
49 1992 Stock New Tube for London 260,916 5,672
Circle line Gulur 1871[b] Sub
surface
27.2 km
17.0 mi
36 S7 Stock[10] N/A 114,609[c] 4,716
District line Grønur 1868 Sub
surface
64.0 km
40.0 mi
60 D78 Stock
S7 Stock[10]
S Stock 208,317 5,208
Hammersmith & City line Pink 1864[d] Sub
surface
25.5 km
15.9 mi
29 S7 Stock[10] N/A 114,609[c] 4,716
Jubilee line Gráur 1979 Deep
Tube
36.2 km
22.5 mi
27 1996 Stock N/A 213,554 9,491
Metropolitan line Lilla 1863 Sub
surface
66.7 km
41.5 mi
34 S8 Stock N/A 66,779 1,609
Northern line Svartur 1890[e] Deep
Tube
58.0 km
36.0 mi
50 1995 Stock N/A 252,310 7,009
Piccadilly line Myrkabláur 1906 Deep
Tube
71.0 km
44.3 mi
53 1973 Stock New Tube for London 210,169 4,744
Victoria line Ljósabláur 1968 Deep
Tube
21.0 km
13.3 mi
16 2009 Stock N/A 199,988 15,093
Waterloo & City line Turkis 1898[f] Deep
Tube
2.5 km
1.5 mi
2 1992 Stock New Tube for London 15,892 10,595
  1. Known as the Central London before 1937.[7]
  2. The Metropolitan and District railways joint inner circle service started in the shape of a horseshoe, a complete loop was formed in 1884[8] and the current spiral in 2009. The line has been referred to as the Circle line at least since 1936 and first appeared separately on the tube map in 1948.[9]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Passenger figures for both Circle and Hammersmith & City lines combined. The Avg. trips per mile figure has been calculated using a combined route length of 24.3 miles.[11]
  4. Originally a joint Great Western and Metropolitan railways service, the line first appeared separately on the tube map in 1990.[12]
  5. The name dates from 1937.[7]
  6. Until 1994 the Waterloo & City line was operated by British Rail and its predecessors.

Keldur[rætta | rætta wikitekst]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 tfl.gov.uk - Facts & figures
  2. 2.0 2.1 Transport for London, Windsor House, 42-50 Victoria Street, London SW1H 0TL, enquire@tfl.gov.uk. "Facts & figures". http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/what-we-do/london-underground/facts-and-figures. 
  3. "BBC News - Tube passenger numbers reach record high of 3.5m a day". BBC News. 28 May 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-27606195. 
  4. "Annual Report and Statement of Accounts 2011/12". TfL. pp. 71, 74. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20120720091255/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/tfl-annualreport-2012.pdf. "Fares revenue on LU was £1,981m... Operating expenditure on the Underground increased by 6.2 per cent to £2,178m" 
  5. London Underground. "Corporate identity—colour standards". Transport for London. http://static.scribd.com/docs/6wfl4g62vle8w.swf?INITIAL_VIEW=width. Heintað 22 December 2007. 
  6. "Performance data almanac". Transport for London. 2014. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/publications-and-reports/underground-services-performance. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Day & Reed (2010), p. 122.
  8. Horne (2006), pp. 13, 24.
  9. Ovenden (2013), p. 220.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Commissioner’s Report". Transport for London. 26 March 2014. pp. 3–4. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/cdn/static/cms/documents/board-20140326-part-1-item05-commissioners-report.pdf. Heintað 2 April 2014. 
  11. Railway Track Diagrams Vol. 5 (2nd ed.). Quail Map Company. 2002. 
  12. Rose (2007).